strategies, resources, and contacts for developing comprehensive school violence prevention programs
this fact sheet outlines selected proven and promising prevention initiatives to encourage non-violence and foster positive relationships among diverse groups of students. it also describes key characteristics of successful school violence prevention programs, including contacts and resources that professionals can use to design violence prevention activities and gather additional information.
types of violence prevention interventions that are most likely to have an impact
school violence is a complex problem, arising from a web of influences such as family and peer dynamics, school climate, community, and the wider culture.1 since the causes of violent behavior in school are multi-faceted, strategies to address this issue must also operate on a variety of levels. plans that are developed collaboratively by students, teachers, administrators, parents, health professionals, law enforcement officers, business and community leaders, and other key community groups are more likely to succeed than those prepared by a single group of professionals acting alone.
characteristics of effective school-based violence prevention programs2
- a strong commitment to reaching all students and staff with the message that violence, harassment, and intolerance are unacceptable in the school environment.3
- involving all students, staff, parents, and interested community members in learning about violence and how to prevent it.4
- eliminating barriers to communication among groups of students
- involving students in violence prevention initiatives as critical and valued partners.5
- collaborating closely and effectively with community, media, and policing agencies.6
examples of effective school violence prevention initiatives
- arts: young people who lack adult supervision are vulnerable to community violence and gang recruitment during non-school hours. youth arts programs offer them a safe and constructive place to go. rigorous evaluation of three citywide arts programs for at-risk youth found that these programs decrease involvement in delinquent behavior, increase academic achievement, and improve students' attitudes about themselves and their future.7
- conflict resolution and peer mediation: comprehensive conflict resolution programs train selected students to serve as neutral third parties who will mediate disputes among their peers. teachers and administrators are also trained to intervene in student conflicts in ways that foster team-building, problem-solving, and leadership skills. by teaching young people how to peacefully resolve their conflicts, and providing them with positive problem-solving strategies and role models, such programs foster a school climate of respect and caring.
- full service schools: evidence shows that after school, on weekends, and during school vacation, youth violence increases.8, 9, 10 full service schools help to prevent youth violence by providing safe places for young people to meet and participate in meaningful activities during times when they would otherwise be at high-risk for becoming involved in crime or violence. full service schools offer comprehensive, integrated activities to address the physical, social, emotional, and educational needs of young people and their families and communities. they may also provide academic and computer classes, sports activities, job training, leadership and support groups, parenting classes, counseling, drama, art, and music classes, and other programs that the community considers important.
- peer and adult mentoring: mentoring programs allow young people to build sustained, positive relationships with older peers and adults, and motivate them to emulate positive behavior. such interactions help reduce risk behaviors in students,11 and create a safe and secure atmosphere in school so that students feel comfortable talking to adults if they need to. peer mentoring can also help to increase understanding between diverse groups, strengthen the sense of community within a school, and build the self-esteem of those participating.
- safe schools/healthy students initiative: the safe schools/healthy students initiative is a federal grants initiative, jointly sponsored by the u.s. department of education, the department of justice, and the department of health and human services. its goal is to prevent youth violence and promote healthy child development by promoting comprehensive educational, mental health, social, law enforcement, and juvenile justice services. safe schools plans must 1) build a safe school environment, 2) address substance abuse, 3) conduce primary violence prevention, 4) provide mental health services (preventative and treatment) both in school and in the community, early childhood psychosocial and emotional development programs, (5) education reform, and (6) safe school policies.
examples of selected violence prevention curricula and programs
note: while several of these curricula have been evaluated, others have not. however, all curricula listed below show great promise for reducing conflict and violence in schools and building students' skills. in addition, several of these curricula and programs have been highlighted as exemplary or promising by the u.s. department of education, safe and drug-free schools program. these programs will be identified with an asterisk(*).
aggressors, victims, and bystanders (avb) violence prevention curriculum*: this curriculum examines violence among peers, including the roles that young people play in potentially violent situations (aggressor, victim, or bystander). it helps students to understand the dynamics of a situation, define their problems and goals, and generate positive solutions in ways that will not lead to fights. the curriculum has been found to increase students' desire to resolve conflicts peacefully and decrease their acceptance and encouragement of aggression. for more information, contact: education development center, inc., 55 chapel street, newton, ma 02158; phone: (800) 225-4276; www.edc.org
flashpoint ii: this curriculum explores hate crimes, civil rights, prejudice, and stereotyping, and provides young people with skills for analyzing the media's depiction of ethnic, racial, and religious groups. it also helps adolescents to build better relationships with diverse groups, and gives them strategies they can implement and use to help victims. this curriculum has been integrated into the massachusetts school system and is currently being evaluated by the office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention (ojjdp). for more information, contact: ruth budelmann, flashpoint program director, director of juvenile justice programs, essex county, massachusetts, district attorney kevin burke's office; phone: (978) 745-6610 x. 155
healing the hate: a national bias crime prevention curriculum: this curriculum helps middle school students to respond to and prevent hate crime. it is based on the principle that violence and prejudice are learned and therefore preventable. the curriculum (doc # ncj 165479) is available free online from www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/165479.pdf or by writing p.o. box 6000, rockville, md 20849-6000; phone: (800) 638-8736; fax: (410) 792-4358; e-mail: [email protected]
lions-quest working toward peace*: lions-quest wtp brings together the school, the family, peers, community, and the media in a network of support to teach and reinforce anger and conflict management skills. for more information, contact greg long, quest international, 1984 coffman rd, neward, oh; phone: (740) 522-6400; fax: (740) 522-6580; e-mail: [email protected]; www.quest.edu
michigan model for comprehensive school health education*: the michigan model brings together an array of national, state, and private resources to promote comprehensive school health from kindergarten through high school. the goals of the program are to provide common language and approaches for parent, community, and student health programs; and reinforce prevention messages from a variety of levels. for more information, contact: the educational materials center, 139 combined services building, central michigan university, mt. pleasant, mi 48859; phone: (517) 774-3986 or 1-800-214-8961; fax: (517) 774-3943; e-mail: [email protected]; www.emc.cmich.edu/mm/default.htm
open circle curriculum*: the open circle curriculum is a social and emotional learning curriculum that targets elementary school students and focuses on strengthening their communication, self-control, and social problem-solving skills. the program also aims to promote the creation of growth-fostering relationships among students and between students and the adults in their lives; and to build a sense of community in classrooms and schools by fostering communication among students and between students and their teachers. for more information, contact: pamela seigle, the stone center, wellesley centers for women, wellesley college; 106 central st., wellesley, ma 02481-8203; phone: (781) 283-3778; fax: (781) 283-3717; e-mail: [email protected]; www.wellesley.edu/opencircle
peacebuilders®*: peacebuilders® is a school-wide violence prevention program for elementary and middle schools that aims to reinforce positive behavior at school, home, in after school settings, peer interactions, and the mass media. for more information, contact peacebuilders: p.o. box 878, san bruno, ca 94066-0878; tel: (877) 4 peace now (1-877-473-2236); fax: (650) 244-9962; e-mail: [email protected]; www.peacebuilders.com
the peacemakers program: violence prevention for students in grades 4-8*: the goal of the peacemakers program is to reduce aggression and violence among youth, and train students in conflict-related psychosocial skills, including anger management, unbiased social perception, conflict avoidance, problem-solving, and assertiveness. for more information, contact: joella burgoon, (216) 696-6823 ext. 1152; e-mail: [email protected]
the positive adolescent choices training (pact) program: pact teaches adolescents appropriate social skills, and helps them learn how to recognize and control angry emotions that can escalate conflict. the curriculum is culturally sensitive to african-american youth and videotaped training vignettes feature contemporary african-american youth. students learn how to give positive and negative feedback, resist peer pressure, and problem-solve effectively. evaluation has showed that this program is statistically significant in raising anger management and social skills and lowering reports of violent and aggressive behavior. for more information, contact research press: 2612 north mattis avenue, champaign, il 61822-1053; phone: (800) 519-2707; fax: (217) 352-1221; e-mail: [email protected]; www.researchpress.com
primary mental health project (pmhp)*: pmhp is a school-based early intervention program that targets children in preschool-grade 3 who show evidence of early school adjustment difficulties. the program seeks to detect, reduce, and/or prevent social, emotional, and school adjustment difficulties, and enhance learning and adjustment skills and other school-related competencies. in the 40 years since it began, pmhp has been thoroughly tested. long-term effects were found up to five years after the intervention that showed treatment children to be better adjusted than a demographically comparable group. pmhp has since been adopted in more than 700 school districts around the world. for more information, contact: deborah johnson, children's institute, 274 n. goodman, suite d103, rochester, ny 14607; phone: (877) 888-7647 or (716) 295-1000; fax: (716)295-1090; e-mail: [email protected]; www.childrensinstitute.net
resolving conflict creatively program (rccp): rccp is a research-based, k-12 program that seeks to change the culture of schools to ensure that young people develop social and emotional skills to reduce violence and prejudice, form caring relationships, and build healthy lives. rccp is the nation's largest and longest-running conflict resolution program for schools, and is currently being used in over 375 schools nationwide. it has been found to benefit all children regardless of gender, grade, or risk status, with rccp participants being less likely to perceive their social world as hostile, and more likely to view violence as unacceptable and chose a nonviolent solution to conflict. for more information, contact: jennifer selfridge, program director, 23 garden street, cambridge, ma 02131; phone: (617) 492-1764 x 31; fax: (617) 864-5164; e-mail: [email protected]; www.esrnational.org/about-rccp.html.
responding in peaceful and positive ways (ripp)*: ripp is a primary prevention program designed for implementation in middle and junior high schools. the program aims to reduce problem behaviors by implementing strategies that address specific risk factors and increase protective factors. ripp participants were more likely to utilize the peer mediation program, and showed significantly lower rates of fighting, bringing weapons to school, and in-school suspensions than control subjects. for more information, contact: melanie mccarthy, 808 w. franklin st., box 2018, richmond va 23284-2018; phone: (804) 828-8793; fax: (804) 827-1511; e-mail: [email protected]; http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-306-46386-5
second step social skills curriculum: this curriculum teaches preschool-junior high students social skills to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior and increase their level of social competence. evaluation has concluded that the second step curriculum leads to moderate decreases in aggression and increases in neutral and pro-social behavior in school.12 this curriculum has been chosen as an exemplary program by a panel of experts from the u.s department of education, safe and drug-free schools. for more information, contact: committee for children, 2203 airport way south, suite 500, seattle, wa 98134; phone: (800) 634-4449; web: www.cfchildren.org
soar (skills, opportunities, and recognition)*: soar (skills, opportunities, and recognition) is an intervention for teachers, parents, and students in grades 1-6. it is a universal prevention program with interventions designed to reduce specific, empirically identified risk factors and to increase protective factors at the individual, peer, family, and school levels. for more information, contact: for more information, contact: ms. regina serrano, director, office of multicultural recruitment and retention, university of arizona, college of education, phone: (520) 621-1827) or mr. roger pfeuffer, assistant superintendent, tucson unified school district, phone: (520) 617-7292
social decision making and problem solving*: the primary goal of this program is to prevent unhealthy life decisions by providing elementary school students with foundational skills necessary to think clearly under stress and in emotional and socially complex situations. for more information, contact: linda bruene butler, university of medicine & dentistry of nj, ubhc - behavioral research and training institute, liberty plaza, 335 george st. - 3rd fl. new brunswick, nj 08901; phone: (732) 235-9280; fax: (732) 235-9277; e-mail: [email protected]; www.umdnj.edu/spsweb
the strengthening families program: for parents and youth 10-14*: the curriculum is a universal preventive intervention designed for parents of all educational levels and their young adolescent children. intermediate objectives of the curriculum include improved skills in nurturing and child management by parents, improved interpersonal and personal competencies among youth, and improved pro-social skills in youth. sfp is recognized by many federal agencies (e.g., nida, ojjdp, csap, cmhs, doed, ondcp, and niaaa) as an exemplary, research-based family model. for more information contact: karol l. kumpfer, university of utah, 250 so. 1850 e. rm. 215, salt lake city, ut 84112; phone: (801) 581-8498; fax: (801) 581-5872; e-mail: [email protected]
additional resources and contacts
american school health association (asha) unites the many professionals who are committed to safeguarding the health of school-aged children. a report on the national injury and violence prevention task force is available from asha at www.ashaweb.org.
annual school safety reports can be found at www.ed.gov.
berkeley media studies group (bmsg) works to provide diverse groups with the skills to access the news media, frame health problems in a social context, and use mass media as a tool to strengthen and advance health policy at the community level. phone: (510) 204-9700; www.phi.org/programs/programs-centers.htm#bms
blueprints for violence prevention: this nationally recognized center provides model violence prevention programs that identify the important components involved in preventing violence. www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/about/main.htm
cdc adolescent and school health information provides data on adolescent health risk behaviors, including violence and unintentional injury, and school health policies and programs. www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash
center for health and health care in schools (chhcs) studies programs that provide health promotion and health care services to youth in schools, and helps school-based health centers determine how to best provide dental and mental health care to students. chhcs also studies practices for coordinating school-based health education and primary care services with the overall health care delivery system. www.healthinschools.org
center for the prevention of school violence provides resources for initiating safe school planning and keeps the public informed through its public awareness campaign. www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/cep/previolence/index.html
children's safety network provides resources and technical assistance to maternal and child health practitioners and others working to reduce intentional and unintentional injuries among children and adolescents. www.childrenssafetynetwork.org
early warning, timely response: a guide to safe schools offers research-based practices designed to assist school communities identify warning signs early and develop prevention, intervention, and crisis response plans. it includes information on what characterizes a school that is safe and responsive to all children, early warning signs, getting help for troubled children, developing a prevention and response plan, responding to crisis resources, methodology, contributors, and research support. the guide is available online at www.ed.gov/offices/osers/osep/earlywrn.html.
eric clearinghouse on urban education: this comprehensive guide contains listings of research studies, program overviews, and links to agencies addressing youth violence. eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/pathways/youth_violence
hamilton fish institute provides a listing of violence prevention programs that have been formally evaluated, as well as examples of noteworthy programs that are still being evaluated. www.hamfish.org/programs/vpprograms/index.php3
keep schools safe is a project of the national association of attorneys general and the national school boards association that is designed to provide up-to-date information on successful youth violence prevention programs and assist communities in developing safe school plans. www.keepschoolssafe.org
national alliance for safe schools: this website provides information about the latest in school safety, anti-violence programs, and other related issues. www.safeschools.org
national organizations for youth safety (noys) is comprised of over 45 youth-serving organizations and their "youth members." the mission of noys is to marshal resources that save lives, prevent injuries, and promote safe and healthy lifestyles among youth. www.noys.com
national resource center for safe schools provides information on how to prevent violence and create safer learning environments in schools. www.safetyzone.org
national school safety center provides youth-serving professionals with strategies and programs to help minimize school violence and prevent school crime. www.nssc1.org
national youth action council (nyac) is a committee of youth who advise the national campaign against youth violence (ncayv). 1219 connecticut avenue, suite 400, washington, d.c. 20036; phone: (202) 223-1650; e-mail: [email protected]; web: www.noviolence.net; www.shine365.com (youth-focused); www.nomasviolencia.com (spanish speaking)
national youth violence prevention resource center (nyvprc) is a collaboration between the white house council on youth violence, the centers for disease control and prevention, and other federal agencies that was established to be a central source of information on prevention and intervention programs, publications, research, and statistics on violence committed by and against children and teens. phone: (866) 723-3968; www.safeyouth.org/home.htm
pacific center for violence prevention researches the root causes of youth violence and works to implement policies aimed at reducing these causes. phone: (415) 285-1793; www.pcvp.org/pcvp/violence/facts/fulserv3.shtml
partnerships for preventing violence is a satellite broadcast series produced by the harvard university school of public health, education development center, inc., and prevention institute. this project emphasizes leadership development, forming effective coalitions, and developing comprehensive primary prevention strategies. to order the series at nominal cost, contact harvard university’s school of public health.
prevention institute is a national nonprofit organization established to advocate for prevention. the institute develops methodology and strategy to strengthen and expand primary prevention practice. prevention institute works with a variety of public and private organizations across a range of issues and disciplines. areas of specialization include injury and violence prevention; fitness, nutrition, and related health issues; child and adolescent health; and city and county initiatives. 221 oak street, oakland, ca 94607; phone: (510) 444-prev; fax: (510) 663-1280; e-mail: [email protected]
safe schools/healthy students initiative: www.nimh.nih.gov/childhp/safeschools.cfm
search institute is an independent, nonprofit, nonsectarian organization whose mission is to advance the well being of adolescents and children. at the heart of the institute's work is a framework of 40 developmental assets, such as positive experiences, relationships, opportunities, and personal qualities, that young people need to grow up to be healthy, caring, and responsible adults. 700 south third street, suite 210, minneapolis, minnesota 55415-1138; phone: (612) 376-8955; toll free: (800) 888-7828; fax: (612) 376-8956; e-mail: [email protected]; www.search-institute.org
school violence resource center: this federally funded national program has three primary goals: 1) to research, evaluate, and disseminate information about initiatives, programs, and information related to school violence, 2) to provide pertinent school violence information and resources through a web-based resource center, and 3) to develop and deliver an educational curriculum on school violence. www.svrc.net
youth and violence education/intervention resources of the humanitarian resource institute provides information from the u.s. departments of justice, education, and health and human services, and the national mentoring partnership. www.humanitarian.net/youth
arts education and school improvement resources for local and state leaders: this is a guide to identifying and securing u.s. department of education funding for arts education programs (both in-school and after-school). www.ed.gov/pubs/artsed
coming up taller describes how the arts and humanities are being used to help at-risk youth and includes profiles of over two hundred programs. www.cominguptaller.org
living literature/colors united is an example of an art program that works to prevent school violence. this program incorporates education in literature, history, and the social sciences with artistic performance and related visual arts instruction. high schools with this program have seen decreases in truancy and violence, and participating students have a 100% graduation rate, with 90% going on to college. 9911 west pico boulevard, suite 1495, los angeles, ca 90025; phone: (310) 444-8357; fax: (310) 286-1986; www.indiewire.com/colors_straight_up/background.htm
youtharts development project toolkit is a multi-media toolkit to help communities develop and evaluate sustainable arts programs for youth. to order, call (800) 321-4510 x. 241 or e-mail [email protected]. additional information about youth art initiatives can be found online at www.artsusa.org/education/youth.html.
bias and hate crimes
preventing bias and promoting respect: broadcast 5 in the six-part satellite broadcast series partnerships for preventing violence focuses on preventing violence by improving inter-group relations. the broadcast features school and community programs that promote tolerance and respect for diversity, as well as organizational initiatives and policies that combat structural racism.
protecting students from harassment and hate crime: a guide for schools defines and describes harassment and hate crimes, contains information about applicable laws, details positive steps that schools can take to prevent and respond to harassment, includes sample policies and procedures used by school districts, identifies resource materials, and provides step-by-step assistance for creating a safe and supportive school climate. the guide is published by the u.s. department of education, the national association for attorneys general, and the national school boards association, and is available by calling (800) 421-3481, or online at www.ed.gov/offices/ocr.
teaching tolerance is a project of the southern poverty law center that produces and distributes free, high-quality anti-bias materials, and serves as a clearinghouse of information about anti-bias programs and activities being implemented in schools across the country. the southern poverty law center; 400 washington avenue, montgomery, alabama 36014; phone: (334) 264-0286; www.tolerance.org
family resource coalition of america: the website includes guidelines for school districts on how to develop family and community involvement policies. www.frca.org
peace by piece: a violence prevention guide for communities: this $25 guide is based on the experiences of a myriad of exemplary programs from across the country that have all demonstrated effectiveness in reaching out to those most likely to become involved in violent behavior. harvard school of public health, violence prevention program; 1552 tremont street, boston, ma, 02120; phone: (617) 495-7777; fax (617) 495-8543; e-mail: [email protected]; www.hsph.harvard.edu/php/vpp/cvpp.html
the school development program, developed by dr. james comer of the yale child study center at yale university, is a systemic school reform strategy with the goal of mobilizing the entire community to support students' holistic development and to promote academic success. student achievement in many comer schools has risen significantly, often outpacing district-wide achievement. for more information, see school power: implications of an intervention project and rallying the whole village: the comer process for reforming education by dr. james comer. www.med.yale.edu/comer/about/profiles.html#comer
conflict resolution and peer mediation
the community board program (cbp) provides a full range of services to schools interested in establishing violence prevention programs. the program trains student mediators and promotes conciliation and mediation as effective strategies for resolving disputes without violence. cbp publishes peer mediation training manuals as well as conflict resolution curriculums for elementary and secondary schools. irene cooper-basch, director of communications, 1540 market street, suite 490, san francisco, ca 94102; phone: (415) 552-1250; fax: (415) 626-0595; e-mail: [email protected]; www.reeusda.gov/pavnet/cp/cpcomboa.htm
conflict resolution education: a guide to implementing programs in schools, youth-serving organizations, and community and juvenile justice settings is available online at www.ncjrs.org or by calling the juvenile justice clearinghouse at (800) 638-8736.
mediation information and resource center provides a forum for people in conflict to meet and discuss methods of conflict resolution. www.mediate.com
national center for conflict resolution education provides information and resources for the development of conflict resolution programs in schools and juvenile justice systems. www.nccre.org
peace center offers programs to help reduce the violence and conflicts in our homes and schools using a community-based and multicultural approach. www.comcat.com/~peace/peacecenter.html
american psychological association public policy office: this website contains a briefing paper on youth and violence, as well as additional information about the mental health concerns of adolescents. phone: (202) 336-6062; email: [email protected]; www.apa.org/ppo
health, mental health, and safety in school: national guidelines to promote student health and safety: this guide is currently being developed by the u.s. department of health and human services, health resources and services administration, and the maternal and child health bureau. for more information, e-mail lydia bolonga, program manager at [email protected].
safe place provides the community with extensive domestic violence and sexual assault intervention and prevention programs including a teen website, hotlines, emergency shelter, counseling, supportive housing, children's services, disability services, legal and hospital advocacy, and community education/training. p.o. box 19454, austin, tx 78760; phone: (512) 385-5181; fax: (512) 385-0662; e-mail: [email protected]
school psychology resources online provides a wide range of information for parents and educators, including violence prevention curricula, safe school information from the national association of school psychologists, and guidelines from the american academy of pediatrics. www.schoolpsychology.net/p_02.html#viol
suicide information and education center (siec): this website provides information about services, training programs, and school materials related to preventing and responding to suicides and other emotional trauma. www.siec.ca
america's promise motivates young americans to connect with one another in ways that foster healthy relationships, promote successful futures, and reduce violence. 909 n. washington street, suite 400, alexandria, va 22314-1556; www.americaspromise.org
big brothers, big sisters of america provides mentors and role models for children across the nation. 230 n. 13th street, philadelphia, pa 19107; phone: (215) 567-7000; fax: (215) 567-0394; e-mail: [email protected]; www.bbbsa.org
national governor's association provides the public with information on new programs initiated to help students across the nation. www.nga.org/pubs/issuebriefs/1999/990221mentoring.asp
national mentoring partnership provides mentors with the resources to initiate more extensive programs across the nation and works to provide all in-need children with mentors. phone: (202) 729-4345; www.mentoring.org/index.adp
national pta: this website provides parents and communities with a community violence prevention kit, along with information about community needs assessment and organizing. www.pta.org/events/violprev
best practices of youth violence prevention: a sourcebook for community action: this cdc publication looks at the effectiveness of specific violence prevention practices in four key areas: parents and families, home visiting, social and conflict resolution skills, and mentoring. the sourcebook also offers a comprehensive directory of resources and more information about programs that have used these practices. it can be ordered or downloaded from www.cdc.gov/safeusa/publications/bestpractices.htm.
helping kids succeed - alaska style: this book uses an assets framework to describe how parents, schools, and communities nationwide, as well as in alaska, can support kids, build their strengths, and help them succeed.
taking action to prevent adolescent violence: educational resources for schools and community organizations: this annotated bibliography provides an overview of youth violence, evaluates violence prevention programs, and presents considerations for selecting and implementing violence prevention curricula. it profiles 84 violence prevention curricula, videos, and other print resources, and includes information on obtaining each item. to order this item, contact the national maternal and child health clearinghouse. phone: (888) 434-4mch. item number l044.
violence in american schools: a new perspective: editors: del elliott, beatrix hamburg, kirk williams. cambridge university press, cambridge, 1998.
what works in preventing rural violence: prepared by the wilder research center, this book describes risk factors and provides strategies and assessment tools.
youthtoday: this publication of the american youth work center is for people who work with young people. it includes an extensive calendar of workshops and conferences related to professional development and youth issues, reviews of books and videos for use with staff and kids, information about grants awarded in the youth field, and analysis of legislative issues concerning youth. www.youthtoday.org
1 bronfenbrenner u (1977) toward an experimental ecology of human development. american psychologist. 32: 513-531.
2 safe schools and communities coalition, the governor's partnership for connecticut's workforce, 30 arbor street, hartford, ct 06106. (860) 231-8311.
7 chemers bm (1999) testimony to the u.s. house of representatives. october 28, 1999, ojjdp.ncjrs.org/about/spch991028.html.
8 snyder hn, sickmund m (1995) juvenile offenders and victims: a national report. office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention, washington, d.c.: 15-16.
9 snyder hn, et al. (1996) office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention, washington, d.c.: 27.
10 more crimes are committed during the months of july and august, during school vacation, than at any other time of the year. crime in the united states (1994) uniform crime reports (1995) u.s. department of justice, federal bureau of investigation, washington, dc: 11 and 36.
11 beier s, et al. (2000) archives of pediatrics and adolescent medicine. 154: 327-331.
12 grossman d (1997) the effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school. may 28, 1997. journal of the american medical association. 277: 20, 1605-1611.
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putting prevention at the center of community well being